Slot machines and Random Number Generator (RNG)

The Slot machine is known with different names across the world. In the States it’s most commonly known as Slot machine, the Slots, or only Slot. Other names is Video Slot or One armed bandit however the last term is a really old name.

Whatever name you choose to call it, it is a Casino gambling machine that creates several games for it’s players or customers. An important thing to remember about Slot machines is that they’re set to pay our a certain amount of money. This is referred to as RTP or Return To Player and is shown in percentage. This site lists Slots with the Highest RTP.

When you talk about RTP (or just play Slot machines) you soon also realize that Slots are based on randomness. The randomness however is of course connected to the RTP of the Slot and the bank (or casino) always have an certain advantage against you. No matter the RTP the Slot machines still need some technology that will give the player a random game every time the spin button is pressed on the slot. This technology is called RNG or Random Number Generator.


What is a Slot machine?

As said Slot machines also get referred to as one-armed bandits. This name comes primarily from the fact that there are big mechanical handles that are located on the sides of early mechanical slot machines. This reference is further reinforced by the fact that the machines can empty the wallets and pockets of players just the way thieves would.

The standard layout of slot machines includes a display showing about three or more colourful reels that spin anytime somebody plays. Several modern machines still have the lever handle to activate play. But, the design and layout of early slot machines have long been replaced by random number generators – lots of them are currently played with the use of touchscreens and push-button.


Slot machines in land based Casinos

The slot machines typically come with several currency detectors, which acts as a method of payment before players get to play. These payments can be in the form of a token, voucher, cash, or coin. Players get paid based on the symbols’ patterns displayed each time the reels of the machine stop spinning. In Casinos, worldwide, slot machines are prevalent for their method of gambling. They make up over 70% of the income of the average casino.

With the help of digital technology, which used to be more of an analogue procedure, the slot machine has now been slightly advanced from its mode of operation.  Slot manufacturers added additional interactive features like more distinctive graphics and advanced bonus rounds.


Video Slots online

Video slot machines have no mechanical reels. They use graphical reels displayed on a digital screen. Since there are no mechanical limitations on the development of the video slot machines, gambling games frequently make use of a minimum of five reels, and they could also make use of non-standard layouts.

This design, to a great extent, increases the probabilities: the machine could possess either 50 or additional symbols on its reel, offering odds as high as 300 million to 1 against – this is just enough for the biggest jackpot.

Video slot machines extensively depend on multimedia. They can feature several elaborate minigames to serve as bonuses. Current video slots have flat-panel screens; however, it is not uncommon to find video slots with big and curved screens. The curved screens usually provide an increased immersive experience for players.

Random Number Generator (RNG)

It is widely known that more than 70% of the income of Casinos is made from Slot machines. The Slot machine is one of the most popular gambling forms. Therefore, as modern times came with new challenges, the slot machines had to evolve The older Video Slot models used mechanical types of operation.

They make use of physical reels; however, we currently have advanced slots that are built with microchips. This enables the winning combination to be assigned to reels randomly. This technique is facilitated by a procedure referred to as RNG or the Random Number Generator.


Understanding the Random Number Generator of mechanical Slots

For mechanical slots, every time that you pull the lever, a button gets automatically pushed. This sets the reels in motion. And then, the game selects a random combination of some symbols. This is the simple mechanism in which video slots work.

This random selection property of the slot machine means that each spin is independent of the others. This means that results from previous spins do not influence the results of future spins.

The possibility of a player successfully winning something with the machine depends on the number of reels. This also depends on the amount of the symbols on every reel. Plus, if a pattern that got randomly generated will help you get the winning set of symbols.

Whereas this may appear impossible, you could apply several tricks to influence your spins to work favourably. The next section explains how a player can assess slots probability to determine their chances of winning at the slots.


Understanding the Random Number Generator (RNG) of digital Slots

All video slots in various casinos now work with the RNG. The RNG is a microchip that gets used to generate numbers every time. These numbers still get generated even when there is no one playing with the machine. The numbers get produced at a pace of several hundreds of billions of times within a second.

Whether it is a progressive slot, a video slot, or perhaps a classic slot, the numbers generated are what help you to determine the position of the reels in the game.

Each time that the lever gets pulled or the button gets pressed. The video slots show the location of the new numbers that got created. These random numbers relate to the location on every one of the reels in the machine.

The RNG is technically a microprocessor. This means that it is the brains of the video slot. More importantly, regardless of what a player does while playing with the machine; they can never influence any of the procedures and the numbers getting created randomly. Furthermore, the machine’s hit frequency, as well as its pay-out ratio, once set, can not be altered, regardless of anything.

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The way the RNG functions

The RNG continually works, that as long as the machine is on, its RNG will continue generating numbers randomly all the time, because this is its primary function. The values obtained from these generated numbers then get translated into various symbol combinations located on the reels of the machine.

When a player works the slot machine through spinning, the outcome of this spin is determined beforehand by these numbers that have got generated randomly. The RNG functions in such a way that it ensures accuracy and impartiality at the same time. This is the primary reason people trust the slot machine as a dependable form of gambling.


What does Hit Frequency mean?

The hit frequency is a number which indicates the frequency that a winning combination shows up on the video slot. If the game has a pretty high frequency, then the game will offer the winning combination more often. While it may look good in theory, it is essential to note that video slots that offer high hit frequencies are not necessarily the perfect games to play.

If we were to explain this in mathematical terms, is that your chances of striking the jackpot during a video slot game are 27,000 to 1. Despite when the winning combination gets created more often, is still means that the chances of activating the spin button at the very moment that the jackpot combination comes up is very low.


What does Payback Rate mean?

The payback rate of a video slot is the payback percentage of a given slot machine. The payback rate of the video slot generally increases with the amount of money that gets deposited into the machine. It is that simple.


The relationship between the hit frequency and the payback rate

As it is, it would be a bad look if every slot machine was programmed to use the same hit frequencies and payback rates. Therefore, all video slots got programmed to have different hit frequencies and payback rates.

In regards to video slots which have an increased hit frequency, they are commonly called “loose,” however; it is worth remembering that the video slots do not come with a high payback percentage.

Alternatively, there are video slots that have a low frequency, and they get referred to as “tight” machines. These tight machines get equipped with the pay-out rate, which is higher than that of the loose machines.

If you are planning to choose a video slot game to play, and you want to use the correct strategy, it stands to reason that you should select the tight machine over the loose machine. This is because the increased payback percentage beats the increased fit frequency.

Probability and the Slot machine: Assessing the Slot machine from a mathematical perspective

The RNG or the Random Number Generator hugely affects one’s possibilities of winning money at any online-based slot. Various video slots at different casinos come with specific features that players need to know before they begin any game. RTP and volatility can get used in the calculation of the probability of a player winning in the slots.

Video slots are among the games played at casinos that lack a real winning pattern.


The slot machine and probability of players winning at the game

The quantity of potential combinations on a slot machine is straightforward to calculate. You should multiply the total amount of symbols or stops that every reel or slot has.


The Mathematics of the slot machine: Basic Calculations

On a slot machine, which has three reels with six symbols per reel? The total amount of potential combination is calculated as 6 x 6 x 6 = 216 total combinations. In the same way, a slot machine has three reels of 20 symbols per reel. In this case, the total amount of combinations can be calculated as 20 x 20 x 20 = 8,000 total combinations.

Similarly, calculating the theoretical odds of a player becoming a winner in the slot machine is straightforward. You should divide the total amount of winning combinations with the amount of probable combinations. Therefore, this is:


How the theoretical odds get calculated in slot machines

Amount of winning combinations/amount of probable combinations = a player’s machine odds. The thing that makes this seem complicated is to create a definitive math formula for the slot machine. This will help you become successful at playing slots. And when you stick to this formula, you shall be able to turn in profits. This is because the calculations and numbers are not useful when you rely on the machine odds in winning. This is simply because various winning combinations have separate pay-outs.


The pay-out percentage of Slot machines

The slot machines are naturally programmed by default to pay out to players as winnings about 82% – 98% of the total money that was bet by the players. This amount is referred to as the RTP, the return to the player, or the theoretical pay-out percentage. The lowest amount of the theoretical pay-out percentage differs among different regions.

For instance, the lowest pay-out percentage in Nevada is about 75%, Mississippi is 80%, and in New Jersey, 83%. The patterns of winnings in video slots – the total amount that the casino pay-out and the numbers of those pay-outs – gets selected carefully to help the “house” (the slot machine operator), whereas the rest amount is returned to the players as they play.

Assuming that a particular slot machine charges $1 for 1 spin and then its RTP is 95%. This can get calculated for time duration like 1, 000, 000 spins, later the machine will pay back on average $950,000 to the players that have played with $1,000,000 at this time. With this simple example, you can say that the video slot pays out 95%. The video slot operator then gets the 5% remaining money, which is $50,000.

The theoretical pay-out of a video slot gets developed and created by default at the organization where the software gets written. The pay-out percentage can never be changed. The only way this can be changed is if there is a physical exchange of the firmware or the software of the machine. This had forced players to rely on their luck when playing the game.

You can not calculate your chances of winning through official figures. This is because lots of casinos, both offline and online, have refused to make public the RTP figures for individual statistics. This sad development makes it impossible for a player to be aware if they are involved in a “tight” or a “loose” game. However, more recently, these RTP figures are starting to become available to the public through independent gambling experts or different casinos, making them known to attract potential players.



This is the basics of the Random Number Generator (RNG) of video Slots. Different casinos the world overall make use of varying slot machines; however, all basic principles are the same.